God Bless Africa

A little while ago I looked up the English translation (God Bless Africa) of N’kosi Sikelele, the national anthem of South Africa and Mungi ibariki Afrika, the national anthem of Tanzania. At independence it was also the anthems of Zambia, Zimbabwe and Namibia until they adopted new ones: Zambia Stand and sing of Zambia; Zimbabwe Blessed be the land of Zimbabwe; Namibia Land of the Brave

The history of this hymn and its use as a national anthem seems to have raised interesting questions over copyright.

All the anthems seem to have been translated into multiple languages, the Zambian noted has having been written in English first and then translated. The South African anthem is currently sung in four languages (Xhosa, Zulu, English and Afrikaans), the first part Nkosi Sikelele having been written in Xhosa and then translated, the second part originating in Afrikaans and the third being an English variation of the original Afrikaans.

This raises some interesting questions with its banning by the Apartheid government: was it a hymn or a political statement? Siemon Allen challenges the banning in a fascinating summary of the use of the hymn. It is claimed that the hymn was first used as a protest song in 1919 with additional verses being added in 1927 by Samuel Mqhayi. Coplan and Jules-Rosette discuss its use in the liberation struggle.

What intrigued me were the topics covered by N’kosi Sikelele – they provide an insight into what was important to the authors and their communities at the time and surprisingly, these are still big topics today: Chiefs (leadership), public men, youth, land, wives, women, ministers (religious), agriculture, stock, land, education, unity.

Another interesting aspect links with wider discussions on the value of African languages and their being subordinated to English and French. Where there are multiple translations of the anthem, which is used at official national occasions and what is the reason for this? With so many language groups, how is unity developed? Or is it through the common tune that unity is achieved? One of my highlights was approaching a Tanzanian primary school during assembly when the children started singing the anthem. I might not have been able to join them in Swahili but I could in Xhosa and Zulu. And in solidarity we asked that ‘God Bless Africa’.

 

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Leprosy in South Africa

I came across this article on Leprosy coins and was reminded of my visit some years ago to Robben Island which I discovered had been a place people suffering from Leprosy had been sent. The idea of isolating people for health or political differences was not lost. In sourcing further information, I happened upon an Oral History Project linking Leprosy and Robben Island. Its sentiments seem fitting.

Not long after, looking up some info for someone on SA wartime expenditure, it was with a little surprise that I spotted the heading “Mental Hospitals and Leprosy Asylums” (TNA: CO 633/68/6) How widespread was Leprosy was the question which sprang to mind especially as the estimated budget for 1916/7 was £302,850, an increase of £4,991 on the previous year. Thankfully a little further on there was some more info:

The spread of hospitals in 1916/7 was as follows:

  • Leprosy Asylums: Robben Island, Emjanyana, Natal, Pretoria, Bochem
  • Mental Hospitals: Valkenburg, Grahamstown, Port Alfred, Fort Beaufort, Pietermaritzburg, Pretoria, Bloemfontein

A total of £1,419 was for research related activities and £9,700 for transport for patients and relatives.

In 1935 the International Leprosy Association named the following members, the Emjanyana which is in the Eastern Cape was under the responsibility of Dr Arthur R Davison and Dr John A Macdonald, Pretoria under Dr Adrianus Pijper.
There was another asylum at Botsabelo in Maseru, Basotholand under Dr Peter Strachan and Dr RC Germond

Some further digging revealed an article by Harriet Deacon on Leprosy and Racism on Robben Island 1846-1900
Anne Digby on Medicine, Race and the General Good: The Career of Thomas N G Te Water (1857–1926), South African Doctor and Medical Politician
A family account of Herbert Hayward Budd ‘The Doc’ – a medical officer on Robben Island
A letter in the Lancet re Leprosy segregation in the Cape in 1906
An obituary for Sir George Turner notes there was a leper asylum in Pretoria in the early 1900s where he worked for 7 years. It accommodated 50 Dutch and 40 Native patients (Obit pg 1, pg 2)

South African Awards and a WW1 literary diversion

I spotted a mention that the cricketer Hashim Amla had been awarded the Order of Ikhamanga (Strelitzia) in Silver – I’d never heard of the award, but assumed it must be something similar to the British OBE or Order of the British Empire. It seems it is, and more specifically for art, culture, music, journalism and sport.

The President’s page explains all the different symbols of the award and there’s a list of all the recipients (I assume it’s all as it doesn’t specify). Some interesting spots on the list – the award was instituted in 2003 (30 November to be precise), the number of posthumous awards was quite staggering, in 2009 there is only one award listed and in 2016 Dr Marguerite Poland features – her name is significant in the realm of novels written about World War 1 in Africa – she is the fourth out of five female authors to write about the war. Her book Iron Love was published in 1999 (See p 166 for synopsis and discussion). [I discovered the fifth female author by chance, Joan Kennedy in 1916 published Sun, Sand and Sin, the total number of novels identified to date in all languages is 53.]

A little more digging reveals there are various other awards too.

  • Order of the Baobab for South African citizens who have contributed to community service‚ business and economy‚ science‚ medicine and technological innovation.
  • Order of Luthuli for contributions to the struggle for democracy‚ nation-building‚ building democracy and human rights‚ justice and peace as well as for the resolution of conflict.
  • Order of the Companions of OR Tambo recognises eminent foreign nationals for friendship shown to South Africa. It is therefore an Order of peace‚ cooperation and active expression of solidarity and support.

For readers interested in comparisons:

The importance of history teaching

There’s been a discussion in South Africa about making history compulsory to Grade 12 (aka Matric, A level equivalent, all school years). The comments are as expected – what will be taught, who decides, how to make a dull boring subject more appealing. The discussion aspect suggested was around teaching methodology and content. This, for me, is the wrong starting point and will only ensure we get into trouble by leaving some group out and opening up accusations of curriculum being used for political reasons.

The starting point is skills. History as a subject is highly complex as seen by the percentage of high flyers who studied history at university level. (2005 HE Academy; 2005 famous history graduates; 2010 UK Guardian; 2015 AHA on skills; 2017 perspective; 2017 Fortune 500 CEOs)

One of the concerning things when looking at the lists of people who studied history at university is the number of politicians – why are they making the same mistakes as in the past? This has led some people to think it’s not worth studying the subject, whilst another more tangible reason is that there is no obvious career route with history.

However, the tweet below says it best – the more people understand the past and why things are the way they are, the easier it is to effectively challenge. It levels the playing ground and for that reason alone, the subject should be taught all the way through school.
History = political life skills.

In addition, history helps develop an identity, problem solving skills, research skills, writing skills, logic and critical thinking.

Putting history in as a subject to the last year of school means that subjects such as citizenship, PSHE and the like would be integrated as they include some of the life skills needed to operate in a global world. The challenge is teaching teachers to teach the subject objectively and creatively – it can be done and for this I thank my history teacher (the same amazing woman, Mrs Amy Ansell for five years), Martin Doherty and Tony Gorst at Westminster Uni and my supervisors Profs Tony Stockwell and John Turner – all educationalists ahead of their time.

Fait accompli – battlefield decisions

One of my interests is the influence of the individual on the course of events, so rather than accepting a statement such as ‘the War Office decided…’, I will try and find out who exactly at the War Office made the suggestion which was eventually accepted. The same goes for ‘x won the battle’ – x being the commander, but there were many little actions taking place during that battle which could have gone either way. X, too, quite often wasn’t even at the site of the battle, having issued instructions via telegraph or command order. The classic case here is that of Horace Smith-Dorrien in England drawing up the battle plan for the battle of Salaita, which was approved by the War Office, Wully Robertson, on 26 December 1915, having to be carried out by General Tighe in British East Africa, now responsible to Jan Smuts who was still on his way to the theatre.

So, I was rather intrigued to come across this article on the Victoria Cross and how decisions made on the battlefield changed the way it was managed. This article raises some other fascinating little snippets to consider:

  • It draws attention to Lord Roberts making poor decisions during the Second Anglo-Boer/South African War of 1899-1920. All to often it’s Lord Kitchener and the battle of Paardeberg which is used as the classic example of poor battlefield management.
  • The impact of family connections – Roberts lost his last son, Freddy, at the battle of Colenso shortly before he arrived to take over command from Buller. Both Lord Kitchener’s brothers joined the military – one, Walter, serving under him in South Africa and the other, Henry, being sent to East Africa during 1914/5 to assist with recruitment amongst other things. How did having family connections in high places in the army affect decisions regarding promotions, awards etc?
  • The fair play and detailed considerations of the War Office when it comes to changing precident. This connects with the previous point – Lord Roberts on arrival back in England sought to ensure that Schofield, who had also been killed at Colenso, was awarded the VC rather than the DSO which Buller had recommended him for.
  • The objectivity involved in making award decisions – Ian Hamilton who was quite involved in the decision-making about the changes to the VC awards, had twice been nominated for one and on both occasions Buller had denied them.

So much, from one little article, although it didn’t hold the info I was hoping to be able to use… the search continues.

Captain Henry Peel Ritchie was the first member of the Royal Navy to receive a VC, for action in East Africa on 28 November 1914 at Dar es Salaam.

John Fitzhardinge Paul Butler (date of action 17 November and 27 December 1914) in West Africa. He later accompanied West African Frontier Force troops to East Africa.

The first military VC awarded in East Africa was a post-humous one – to Wilbur Dartnell who was killed (3 September 1915) having stayed behind despite being wounded to protect some of his men who had fallen. Background can be found here.

William Anderson Bloomfield (date of action 24 August 1916)

Frederick Charles Booth (date of action 12 February 1917)

Andrew Frederick Beaucamp-Proctor, RFC (date of action 8 October 1918)

According to a list of VC winners on Wikipedia (not complete as only one WW1 East African listed), 8 VCs were awarded for actions in South Africa pre-1885, 3 in Rhodesia pre-1896, 6 Anglo-Boer War 1899-1901 – one of these is John David Francis Shaul who is buried in Boksburg, my hometown and who also served in Africa during World War 1; another is Alexander Young who, after serving in South West Africa, died on the Somme (the article incorrectly claims East Africa).

Life is complicated

I broke my rule the other day and responded to a hot topic article – within minutes I had someone suggest I look at a current news programme. I haven’t and I won’t – the point of my reply was that exploitation is not only a colour or colonial ‘thing’, it often is economic-based and human nature (greed).

I understand the plea for land redistribution and reclaiming. It’s gone on in many countries over many years and not always successfully. Restitution for past wrongs (who determines the wrong?) should be made but this needs to be balanced with the current situation too where often the current inhabitants are oblivious to what happened in the past. If only we’d learn from what has one on before.

Not long ago, I was sent a video of someone complaining about Stella McCartney appropriating traditional African material for her 2017 range. To be honest, I think there are at least two issues here which have become confused and amalgamated. I have no issue with Stella using African material – what a compliment. My wardrobe is a mix of traditional African and European materials and have often questioned black African friends who value their African roots why in England they don’t wear their African outfits. ‘I don’t feel comfortable’ is often the answer or ‘I wear them on special occasions’. The main issue I see with Stella McCartney’s range is the price – but again, it’s economics, and a matter of taste – theere is no way I would wear a combination as she has put together, and I’ve been known for doing some obscure fashion things myself.

I wonder what we’re really complaining about? Reasons of colour and colonisation seem to be very easy labels to attribute to things we don’t like these days.

I can hear someone say, ‘you’re white so it’s easy for you to make such a statement’ – Yes, I’m white, but I’m also African (despite what many in Europe, incl Britain, and America may say) and a minority – in both countries I call ‘home’. And in both, I face challenges for similar reasons – being white, African and colonial (that is being from a colony – shorthand inclusion for dominion too – vs living in a previously colonising territory). My experience has been – take away the colour (incl African) and the colonial issue and underneath will be a range of similarities and invariably another reason or three for the difference being expressed through currently politically correct labels. Only getting down to the real issue will we be able to ‘fix’ the problem. (And yes, sometimes once you’ve done this, it may be an issue of colour – linked with ignorance?).

Related to this has been what I’ve seen as divisive discussion about Winnie Mandela following her death. Personally, I distinguish between two Winnies – the early political activist and the later politician. I admire the early Winnie who gave confidence and hope to so many, but I cannot agree with what she did later in life – possibly a response to thinking she had to compete with Nelson for the limelight. Irrespective, I can’t help but recall the plea made by Margaret Thatcher’s family after her death – remember she was somebody’s wife, mother and daughter. Let them grieve the person they knew and loved.

The morning I was inspired to write this blog, another parallel link with current events and the complexity of life came to light. In 1908, Jan SMuts was being taken to task for trying to repatriate Indians (Asiatics as they were called then) who had been resident in the Transvaal for years. Volume 2 of his published papers, by Keith Hancock and Jean van der Poel, contains numerous pages on this topc and the outcry of those in England and the Cape around what he was trying to do. The biggest outcry though seemed to be around his wanting to fingerprint all the Indians, and not just their thumb but all ten fingers, the latter being regarded as necessity for criminal cases and the former for civil cases.

This brings me back to where I started. It’s all complex and more than colour and colonialism. What the solution is to greater equality is, I don’t know, but I’m sure we’d get a lot closer to one which would satisfy all sides if we took time to understand the real issues underpinning the predicament and worked to solve these – treating all with respect and humanity.

The morning I typed this blog, a quote by Jesse Jackson speaking at Wits at some point caught my eye.

‘After 24 years of freedom, Black’s are freer, Whites are richer’

But who, is happier and more content?

Quiet recognition

Recently, I’ve been discovering acknowledgements to various forces which have tended to be kept out of the media spotlight.

The first was an article on Johannesburg’s oldest war memorial – one to Indian troops. It dates back to 31 October 1902.

And by the time I got to visit Delville Wood on Friday 16 March 2018, I had discovered that when the memorial was opened in 1926, there were three acknowledgements which didn’t make it into the white press. Thanks to Bill Nasson who discovered a newspaper record of it and referenced it in an article entitled Delville Wood and South African Great War Commemoration (English Historical Review, 2004).

  • Leo Walmseley laid a wreath to the carriers and labourers who served in Europe and Africa. Leo himself had been a pilot in the East Africa campaign.
  • Petals were thrown to remember the 250 Indian Stretcher Bearers from South Africa who served and
  • Major William Cunningham remembered the Cape Corps who had served in East Africa and Palestine.

The newspaper which carried the info was African World Supplement, xi Abantu-Batho, 1 October 1926.

It’s a pity such remembrance was done on the quiet but it shows that there are always some who stand out from the crowd.